IPHE Country Update: December 2013
Member Statements (Read more) - Last updated December 2013
- Russian Statement (PDF 1.90MB); 20th Steering Committee Meeting; City of Fukuoka, Japan; 20-21 November 2013
- Russian Statement (PDF 364KB); 14th Steering Committee Meeting; Shanghai, China; 21-22 September 2010
- Russian Statement (PDF 3.13MB); ILC/SC Joint Meeting; Washington, DC; 1-3 December 2009
- Russian Statement (PDF 2.11MB); Steering Committee Meeting; Sao Paulo, Brazil; 24-25 April 2007
- Russian Statement (PDF 58KB); Steering Committee; Paris, France; 26-28 January 2005
- Russian Statement (PDF 20KB); Implementation-Liaison Committee; Reisensburg, Germany; 26 February 2004
- Ministerial Statement (PDF 102KB); IPHE Inaugural Ministerial Meeting; Washington, D.C.; 20 Nov 2003
Education (Read more) - Last updated April 2009
Within the framework of the FASI project on hydrogen education, a number of scientific and education centers have been established to train specialists in hydrogen energy technologies. These education centers are functioning on the basis of the leading Russian universities and research institutes (the Moscow Power Engineering Institute, the RRC Kurchatov Institute, the Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Moscow High Technical University, Novosibirsk State University, the Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, Voronezh Polytechnical University, the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Tomsk Technical University, and St. Petersburg State University). Also, several textbooks and method guides on hydrogen technologies and fuel cells have been published for high school students).
At the Moscow Power Engineering Institute, a new department specializing in electrochemical and hydrogen energy technologies has been founded to train specialists and post-graduate students. Additionally, several colleges have been established to educate elementary school children. These colleges function under the auspices of the Moscow Power Engineering Institute; the Moscow Institute of Radio Technology, Electronics and Automatics (MIREA); the Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (St. Petersburg); Novosibirsk State University; and others.
The MIREA has also prepared a number of relevant textbooks for school children. Further, some schools have initiated “hydrogen clubs,” and a scientific and education center, “Sokolinaya Gora,” has been established with the assistance of Moscow State University and MIREA.
Involvement (Read more) - Last updated April 2009
Russia has developed and used hydrogen technologies in practice for many years, starting from the time of its first space program. Research and development (R&D) activities carried out at the end of the 20th century resulted in a number of accomplishments. Among these was the development of an experimental liquid-hydrogen-fueled airplane laboratory, TU-155, which was tested in 1986 and 1987. Another achievement was the development of air and space hydrogen-fueled engines, including an unparalleled engine, RD-0120, with a forward thrust of 200 tf in each booster of “Buran-Energy” complex. Also, an experimental hypersonic ramjet engine (SCRAMJET) 58L was successfully fly-tested with a hypersonic flying laboratory with a Flight Mach number from 3 to 7. During the 1980s, a fleet of demonstration taxi-cars fueled by a mixture of gasoline and hydrogen were successfully run in Kharkov. Additional accomplishments included the development of hydrogen forklifts; systems for hydrogen production, storage, and transportation; 250-kW alkaline-fuel-cell (AFC)-based power generation units; and many other R&D projects. The results of these R&D activities are presented in an eight-volume collection of scientific papers, entitled “Nuclear and Hydrogen Power and Technologies,” as well as in a number of monographs, published in the Russian language during the 1980s and 1990s.
In the 1990s, the hydrogen R&D program was considerably curtailed because of the political situation in Russia. However, at the beginning of this century, the Russian Ministry of Science and Education and the Federal Agency for Science and Innovation (FASI) re-initiated an R&D program in the field of hydrogen technologies. This program provides funding for R&D projects related to hydrogen production for the power sector and transport. Today, the Russian hydrogen program funded by FASI comprises more than 40 projects. Additionally, Russia is one of the founding members of the International Partnership for the Hydrogen Economy.
Policy and Legislation (Read more) - Last updated April 2009
By decree of the Russian president in May 2006, hydrogen energy technologies were given the status of being critically important for the further development of the national economy. As such, hydrogen energy technologies are to be developed on a priority basis.
The national programs that funded research, development, and demonstration (RDD) projects from 2002 to 2006 have been successfully completed. Since 2007, projects aimed at the development and deployment of hydrogen energy technologies, including projects related to fuel cells, have been funded by the Russian government. Funding is mainly derived through two national (or special federal) programs: (1) “R&D in the Priority Areas of the Russian Scientific and Technological Complex Development for 2007–2012” and (2) “National Technological Basis for 2007–2011.” The main objective of the first program is to accelerate R&D in the priority areas of science and engineering. The focus of the second program is to accelerate the commercialization of innovative technologies and new products. Some basic research related to hydrogen is also funded through the programs of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) and the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (RFBR).
Government Hydrogen and Fuel Cell RD&D Funding
For 2007 to 2009, the annual budget allocation for RDD projects through the special federal program, “R&D in the Priority Areas of the Russian Scientific and Technological Complex Development for 2007–2012,” amounts to more than $17 million. This program is implemented under the auspices of FASI. In addition, approximately $13.5 million is provided through the “National Technological Basis” program. Some funding is also allocated through other Russian agencies (e.g., Roscosmos and Rosatom). In addition, about $20 million is allocated by private companies (e.g., Gazprom, JSC Russian Railways [RZhD], Nornikel, and others) for projects to be implemented through public-private partnerships.
Research and Development (Read more) - Last updated April 2009
In 2007 and 2008, more than 60 organizations were involved in hydrogen projects implemented within the framework of the special federal program, “R&D in the Priority Areas of the Russian Scientific and Technological Complex Development for 2007–2012.” Among the project coordinators are leading Russian research organizations — including 8 federal scientific centers, 19 institutes of the RAS, and 14 universities — as well as innovative small and medium enterprises (SMEs), branch research institutes, and design engineering departments. The R&D carried out by these organizations covers all aspects of hydrogen technologies.
Hydrogen Production Technologies
Hydrogen production technologies are being developed within the framework of the Russian R&D program. These technologies include efficient compact units (including a portable unit) for the catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons; proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolysers that operate under pressure of up to 13 MPa, with a productive capacity of more than 10 nm3/h; stationary and on-board plasma-chemical converters for converting hydrocarbon fuels into syngas; and hydrogen production units with systems of hydrothermal oxidation of aluminum- and magnesium-based solid materials. In addition, some basic R&D endeavors include new catalysts (including a nanostructured catalyst) for thermochemical and electrochemical processes; thermochemical process of water decomposition; and hydrogen production from biomass, organic waste, and other nontraditional resources. The participating research organizations include the Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, the Research Center “Kurchatov Institute,” the Joint Institute for High Temperatures, the Frumkin Institute for Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Moscow State University, the Moscow Power Engineering Institute, Gubkin Oil and Gas University, Novosibirsk State University, the “Aspect” Association, RSC “Applied Chemistry,” and others.
Hydrogen Storage Technologies
Hydrogen storage technologies are being studied and developed as a result of the efforts of more than 20 national research institutes and universities within the framework of projects funded by FASI, RAS, and RFBR. These technologies include new materials (including nanostructured and composite materials) for reversible hydrogen storage systems and purification; hydrogen storage in nonequilibrium and rechargeable systems; reversible solid storage systems integrated with stationary power generation units, based on low-temperature fuel cells with a capacity of up to 5 kW(e); and compact and safe metal hydride hydrogen sources for portable (mobile and transportable) power supply units, equipment, and apparatus. The participating research organizations include the Institute for Problems of Chemical Physics, Moscow State University, the Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Novosibirsk State University, the Ural Institute for Physics of Metals, the Moscow Power Engineering Institute, the RRC “Kurchatov Institute,” and others.
Efforts are under way to develop fuel cells of various types (e.g., AFCs, proton exchange membrane fuel cells [PEMFCs], solid oxide fuel cells [SOFCs], and molten carbonate fuel cells) for portable and stationary power units to attain an autonomous power supply with a capacity of up to 100 kW. Portable AFC-based charging devices with gradient porous structures are in the deployment and commercialization stage. Also under development are AFC-based power units of a new generation, as well as stationary and portable power units with PEMFC and SOFC with a capacity from 5 kW to 100 kW, new catalysts (including a nanostructured catalyst) and a membrane electrode assembly with a reduced content of platinum, from nanostructured ceramic ion-conducting materials, reversible PEMs, and SOFCs of 0.5- 1 kW. The participating research organizations include the Central Institute for Ship Electric Engineering and Technology, the RRC “Kurchatov Institute,” the “Aspect” Association, Independent Power Technology, the Ural Electrochemical Plant, KVANT, RSC “Energia,” the Frumkin Institute for Physical and Electrochemistry, the Ural Institute of High Temperature Electrochemistry, the Institute for Problems of Chemical Physics, the Moscow Power Engineering Institute, the Joint Institute for High Temperatures, the All-Russian Institute of Experimental Physics, the All-Russian Institute of Technical Physics, the Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, the Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, the Institute of Physical and Power Engineering, and others.
Two automobiles, the “Lada-Antel-1” (based on an AFC), and the “Lada-Antel-2” (based on a PEMFC), have been displayed at various motor shows. Several types of automobiles with ignition engines that use hydrogen-gasoline fuels have been designed and tested. A switch locomotive with a fuel-cell-based engine is also under development. The hydrogen-powered vehicles projects are implemented by AVTOVAZ, the National Auto-Motor Institute, RSC “Energia,” the Ural Electrochemical Plant, the National Association of Hydrogen Energy, the All-Russian Institute of Railway Technologies, and others.
Hydrogen Combustion Power Technologies
Experimental high-pressure hydrogen-oxygen steam generators, with thermal power up to 25 MW, have been developed and tested. Model high-temperature steam turbine units with these combustors, with up to 5-MW capacity, have been designed and tested by the Joint Institute for High Temperatures, the JSC “Chemical Automatics Design Bureau,” and the Keldysh Research Center.
The R&D is aimed at developing the technologies, methods, and means expected to provide for the safety of hydrogen production and its use as an energy carrier. It covers the experimental and theoretical study of combustion processes (including combustion under nonstationary conditions) and the explosion of hydrogen-air mixtures under ambient conditions, in large closed volumes of various geometry (including accumulative), and in jets coming out of high-pressure containers and others. The R&D also addresses development of inhibitors and stabilizers, systems of diagnostics, prevention and liquidation of fire and explosion in hazardous situations, and research on hydrogen safety codes and standards and their harmonization with international codes and standards. Unique equipment is used for carrying out such work. Among the equipment is a 13-m-diameter explosion camera, with a designed capability for explosion resistance, equivalent to 1,000 kg of TNT.
The R&D carried out in 2007 and 2008 revealed the new phenomenon of an abnormal increase in pressure under nonstationary combustion of hydrogen-air mixtures and in situations where explosion waves enter into accumulative volumes. Additionally, new methods and means of control over the velocity of hydrogen flame spread, means to prevent combustion from turning into an explosion, safety valves for the reduction of pressure in high-pressure containers, and some other devices have been developed. Some new national hydrogen safety regulations have been drafted, including those for liquid hydrogen. The work on hydrogen safety is conducted by the Joint Institute for High Temperatures, the Research Center “Kurchatov Institute,” JRC “Cryogenmash,” and others.