IPHE Country Update: December 2015
Name: Dr. Klaus Bonhoff, Dr. Hanno Butsch, Dr.
Thomas Kattenstein; Dr. Jürgen Garche
Contact Information: Hanno.email@example.com
Covered Period: May 27, 2015 – December 3, 2015
New Policy Initiatives on Clean Technologies and Clean Energy (Read more)
The continuation of the National Innovation Program for Hydrogen and Fuel Cells (NIP2) and of the respective implementation organization NOW for another 10 years is currently discussed within the ministries and a decision is expected by the end of 2015. The suggested NIP2 program would consist of two main pillars.
Pillar 1: Continued R&D
Pillar 2: Market activation
The focus of pillar 1 is on technical improvement and technical based cost reductions. Pillar 2 focuses on the early commercialization of products in transport, hydrogen production and the combined-heat-and-power market for house energy and industrial processes.
Furthermore, NOW was contracted by the federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure to develop the national strategy frameworks, which are required in the context of the European Directive 2014/94/EU on the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure (AFI).
Since September 15th 2015 the European Directive 2015/1513 for amending Directive 98/70/EC relating to the quality of petrol and diesel fuels and amending Directive 2009/28/EC on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources came into effect. These directives for the first time consider renewable electricity and renewable hydrogen as fuels for the transportation sector. Accordingly, these new renewable fuels and especially their contribution to greenhouse gas-reduction have to be implemented into national law within the next years.
Hydrogen and Fuel Cell R&D Update (Read more)
The Callux practical test for fuel cell heating systems in the home, which commenced in September 2008 as part of the National Innovation Programme Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology (NIP), is now successfully completed and has culminated in the market introduction of the innovative systems. The participating manufacturers, Baxi Innotech, Hexis and Vaillant, jointly tested almost 500 such fuel cell heating systems for their efficiency together with companies from the energy sector including EnBW Energie Baden- Württemberg, E.ON, EWE, MVV Energie and VNG – Verbundnetz Gas.
On October 15th the operation of the world’s most efficient and compact power-to-gas system on the HanseWerk research site in Hamburg-Reitbrook was launched. The project facilitates the supply of hydrogen which has been generated by wind electricity into the Hamburg gas network. The aim of the joint project of E.ON and HanseWerk is to increase the use of renewable energies in terms of the set objectives over the course of the energy transition. Operating for the first time, a PEM electrolyser facilitates the optimization of the power-to-gas technology both technically and economically. With a nominal 1.5 megawatt power-input, the PEM system achieves a more dynamic operation as well as less energy losses compared to incumbent technologies. With its dimensions of 50 x 50 x 50cm, this stack is the most compact unit in the world.
Furthermore, the process to extend the activities within the Clean Energy Partnership (CEP) is currently ongoing. In the context of a NIP2 all partners showed their interest to continue this joint research, development and demonstration platform for hydrogen and fuels in road transport.
Regarding the use of hydrogen and fuel cells in rail transport, a study on the issue of “Hydrogen rail infrastructure” has been launched. Coordinating with the relevant stakeholders (e.g. railway companies, Alstom Deutschland AG) and regional actors (e.g. state agencies, commissioning authorities of the regional rail services), the study will develop appropriate action plans including different provision options for hydrogen, legal framework conditions and the anticipated investment costs in infrastructure and operation. Synergies with other transportation modes will have to be identified.
Demonstration and Deployments Update (Read more)
A continuation of the lighthouse project “e4Ships” is currently under discussion. Two major aspects in the future might be market analysis for fuels and infrastructure for maritime applications and global alignment of the regulative environment for the use of fuel cell systems on ships. This would facilitate the early commercialization of these applications.
The federal Ministry for Economics and Energy has announced plans to support the market introduction of residential fuel cell systems starting 2016.
Events and Solicitations (Read more)
- 25th – 29th April 2016 Industry Fair, Hanover
- 10th – 12th October 2016 World of Energy Solutions, Stuttgart
- 10th April 2016 Symposium “Hydrogen rail infrastructure “, Berlin
- 10th March Suppliers Market Place, Berlin
For more information https://www.now-gmbh.de/en/aktuelles/veranstaltungen
Investments: Government and Collaborative Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Funding (Read more)
Public funding of hydrogen technology will continue.
The Ministries of the federal Government participating in the NIP are currently discussion to continue the NIP until 2026. The BMVI will continue to fund hydrogen and fuel cell technology and has secured 161 million euro until 2018. Aside from the continuation of research and development as well as everyday demonstration of the technology, in future the focus will be on market introduction of the technology.
Based on the cross-sectoral joint initiative H2 MOBILITY in Germany, six industry partners have founded a joint venture, the H2 Mobility Deutschland GmbH & Co. KG (H2M), to further develop a nationwide hydrogen refueling station network. In a first step up to 100 refueling stations will be built as a base coverage followed by a synchronized network development depending on fuel cell car sales of up to 400 stations by 2023. Germany would thus become the first country to have a cross-regional network for refuelling fuel cell vehicles with hydrogen. Representatives of H2M partners affirmed these plans on October 13th 2015 at the meeting with Transport Minister Alexander Dobrindt.
- Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology
- Federal Ministry of Transport, Building and Urban Development
- Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (English)
- Federal Ministry of Education and Research
- Federal Ministry of Consumer Protection, Food, Agriculture and Consumer Production
Networks/Initiatives of Federal States
- Baden-Wuerttemberg: Fuel Cell Initiative of Baden Wuerttemberg
- Bavaria: WIBA - Coordination Centre of the Bavarian Hydrogen Initiative
- Hamburg: hySOLUTIONS Hamburg
- NRW: Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Network North-Rhine Westphalia
- HyRaMP: European Regions and Municipalities Partnership for Hydrogen and Fuel Cells
Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Associations
- German Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Association (DWV)
- Initiative Fuel Cell (IBZ)
- Clean Energy Partnership (CEP) in Berlin
- CALLUX: Lighthouse Project for Residential Energy
- NRW Hydrogen Hyway
- NRW Product List
- Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety
- World Fuel Cell Council
Reports & Publications
- NOW Annual Report 2008 (PDF 4.83MB)
- National Development Plan (NEP 2.1), April 2007 English (PDF) German (PDF)
- National Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Innovation Programme (NIP), May 2006 English (PDF) German (PDF)
- The 5th Energy Research Programme of the Federal Government, July 2005 English (PDF 546KB) | German (PDF 659KB)
- Strategy Report on Research Needs in the Field of Hydrogen Energy Technology English (PDF 806KB) | German (PDF 1.78MB)
Member Statements (Read more) - Last updated December 2015
- German Statement (PDF); 24th Steering Committee Meeting; Grenoble, France; 1-3 Dece,ber 2015
- German Statement (PDF); 23rd Steering Committee Meeting; Wuhan, China; 27-28 May 2015
- German Statement (PDF 2.35MB); 22nd Steering Committee Meeting; Rome, Italy; 2-3 December 2014
- German Statement (PDF 1.54MB); 21st Steering Committee Meeting; Oslo, Norway; 19-21 May 2014
- German Statement (PDF 1.19MB); 20th Steering Committee Meeting; City of Fukuoka, Japan; 20-21 November 2013
- German Statement (PDF 830KB); 19th Steering Committee Meeting; London, United Kingdom; 23-24 May 2013
- German Statement (PDF 543KB); 18th Steering Committee Meeting; Seville, Spain; 14 November 2012
- German Statement (PDF 985KB); 17th Steering Committee Meeting; Cape Town, South Africa; 3-4 May 2012
- German Statement (PDF 1.90MB); 15th Steering Committee Meeting; Vancouver, Canada; May 2011
- German Presentation (Reiner) (PDF 3.12); Governmental Programs on E-Mobility; Ulm, Germany; 15 June 2010
- German Presentation (Bonhoff) (PDF 3.12); Governmental Programs on E-Mobility; Ulm, Germany; 15 June 2010
- German Presentation (PDF 420KB); IPHE Infrastructure Workshop; Sacramento, CA, USA; 25-26 February 2010
- German Statement (PDF 4.39MB); ILC/SC Joint Meeting; Washington, DC; 1-3 December 2009
- German Statement (PDF 3.76MB); ILC Committee Meeting; Essen, Germany; 19-22 February 2008
- German Statement (PDF 471KB); ILC Committee Meeting; Seoul, Korea; 11-14 June 2007
- German Statement (PDF 246KB); ILC Meeting; Oxford, England; 30 January - 1 February 2007
- German Statement (PDF 397KB); Steering Committee Meeting; Reykjavik, Iceland; 26-27 September 2006
- German Statement (PDF 662KB); Steering Committee Meeting; Kyoto, Japan; 14-15 September 2005
- German Statement (PDF 923KB); ILC Committee Meeting; Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 22 March 2005
- German Statement (PDF 263KB); Steering Committee Meeting; Paris, France; 26-28 January 2005
- German Statement (PDF 80KB); ILC Meeting; Reisensburg, Germany; 26 February 2004
- Ministerial Statement (PDF 94KB); IPHE Inaugural Ministerial Meeting; Washington, D.C.; 20 Nov 2003
Involvement (Read more) - Last updated November 2009
Intensive research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) on hydrogen technologies was started in Germany in 1988 and concentrated on the development of specific technologies, such as hydrogen production using electrolysis, hydrogen storage, and larger projects, to demonstrate the complete supply chain of a solar hydrogen energy economy (HYSOLAR and the Solar-Hydrogen-Bavaria Project, BAYSOLAR). This work was concluded in 1995 and 1999 with the result that, in principle, the main components of a hydrogen energy system were developed and functioning; however, the commercial viability of a solar hydrogen economy could only be realized in the far future. Ambitious projects concentrating on new materials, improved components, and system integration have been supported.
In 2006, the National Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Innovation Program (NIP) was established as a strategic alliance between the German government, industry, and the academic community. These partners are forging ahead in preparing the market for hydrogen and fuel cell applications. To this end, in addition to research and development (R&D) work, the program focuses on extensive demonstration projects in the following sectors: transport including hydrogen infrastructure, stationary applications, and special markets.
The NIP has a total budget of 1.4 billion euro (€) (US$2.044 billion). Half of the budget is contributed by the German government — the Federal Ministry of Transport, Building, and Urban Affairs (BMVBS) and the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi) — while industry participants provide the other half. Research and development projects are funded through the BMWi, which contributes €200 million (US$293 million), while demonstration projects are funded through the BMVBS, which contributes €500 million (US$32.5 million).
The National Organization for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology (NOW) coordinates and manages the implementation of the NIP. A federally owned body, NOW is the central point in a new strategic alliance that embraces the German government, industry, and the academic community. NOW's novel approach brings together these partners as equals and maintains a platform through which they can further develop the NIP in line with their own needs, thus making the best possible use of the specific qualities of each partner.
NOW focuses on so-called lighthouse projects, in which NIP project partners are grouped on a regional or topic-specific basis so as to create strong cooperative projects.
The German fuel cell industry is very likely the market leader in Europe, not only in terms of the number of companies involved and people employed but also in terms of showing leadership through a variety of demonstration projects — as underscored by the fact that more than 70% of today's European fuel cell demonstration units are located in Germany.
Germany is participating actively in the European Union's Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Platform and is actively involved in the International Partnership on Hydrogen Economy (IPHE).
Participants are the main industry players from all sectors and the academic community, as well as political decision makers and ministerial departments. The NOW advisory board, strategy council, and general assembly essentially represent the hydrogen and fuel cell community in Germany.
Policy, Legislation & R&D (Read more) - Last updated November 2009
POLICY & LEGISLATION
The German government adopted the NIP as part of its “high-tech strategy” in spring 2006. The program aims to contribute to maintaining and expanding Germany’s good starting position for developing and implementing hydrogen and fuel cell technology in the marketplace. The Innovation Program includes RD&D of mobile as well as stationary applications of fuel cells and hydrogen.
Complementing fuel cells, battery technology will be further developed as a key technology. The new €500-million (US$732.5 million) program for e-mobility is based on the 2009 economic stimulus package. It runs from 2009 to 2011.
Public funding of BMWi and BMVBS will amount to €1.4 billion euro from 2006 to 2016 (NIP) and guarantees substantial institutional funding for basic research at Max-Planck Gesellschaft (MGP), Helmholtz-Centers (HGF), and Fraunhofer Gesellschaft (FhG), as well as RD&D projects carried out by the industry.
Most federal states, such as North Rhine-Westphalia and Hamburg, have initiatives and funding programs. For example, North Rhine-Westphalia has funded 85 projects since 2000. The annual funding amount averaged approximately €10 million (US$14.65 million). Because of a new, larger-scale project (“hydrogen highway”), the annual funding amount for the coming 3 years will be €15 million (US$21.97 million). Hamburg funded six major projects between 2003 and 2008 that totaled €15.2 million (US$22.2 million). Between 2009 and 2013, Hamburg will spend €18.4 million (US$26.96 million) on hydrogen and fuel cell projects.
RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
In the NIP framework, R&D projects are funded by the BMWi, while BMVBS focuses its funding more on demonstration projects. BMWI funding for R&D in the field of fuel cell and hydrogen technology accounted for €25–30 million (US$36.62-43.95 million) over the past 3 years (from 2006 to 2009).
Infrastructure, Applications & Markets (Read more) - Last updated November 2009
TRANSPORT & HYDROGEN INFRASTRUCTURE
The Clean Energy Partnership (CEP) is the most substantial demonstration project in the area of hydrogen transport and infrastructure. Established in 2002, the CEP is an international group of cooperating enterprises whose aim is to prove the feasibility of hydrogen as fuel in day-to-day use.
In October 2008, CEP entered Phase 2, and since then 48% of its funding has been through the NIP. The CEP partners are BMW Group, Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe BVG, Daimler, Ford, General Motors/Opel, Hamburger Hochbahn HH, Linde Shell, StatoilHydro, TOTAL, Vattenfall Europe, and Volkswagen. The total CEP budget in 2008 was €25.8 million (US$37.79 million).
CEP focuses on the key regions of Berlin and Hamburg. More than 30 passenger cars and two bus fleets are in day-to-day use. CEP also maintains a fueling network in Hamburg and Berlin.
Ten HydroGen4 vehicles from General Motors/Opel joined the CEP’s fleet of cars in 2008. The HydroGen4 is a hydrogen fuel cell vehicle of the latest generation whose features include a 700-bar hydrogen storage system. The vehicles will be in daily use in Berlin until the end of the second CEP phase in 2010.
VW has enlarged the CEP fleet with the addition of its latest fuel cell vehicles, the HyMotion models based on the VW Tiguan. The vehicles are equipped with start-stop functionality and braking energy recovery and have made a major contribution to CEP’s aim of establishing a fleet of 40 vehicles by 2010. Volkswagen plans to use the six vehicles to learn more about the supply, operation, and performance of fuel cell vehicles.
BMW has been a rock-solid participant since CEP’s early days. In Phase 2, the company will operate additional BMW Hydrogen7 vehicles in Berlin. Unlike other manufacturers’ vehicles, most of the BMW Hydrogen7s are equipped with bivalent H2´combustion engines, although some of them have a monovalent H2 combustion engine.
Daimler’s core aims for using its 10 A-Class hydrogen fuel cell vehicles are to support demonstration operation and realize improvement in servicing and maintaining the vehicles and in project management. The cars are being subjected to testing in everyday situations in the hydrogen cities of Hamburg and Berlin. During the second CEP phase, which expires in 2010, Daimler plans to increase its fleet of small fuel cell cars in the customer section with the addition of the Mercedes-Benz B-Class fuel cell vehicles.
The hydrogen-powered buses integrated into the public transport systems of Berlin (run by BVG) and Hamburg (run by Hochbahn) commenced operation in CEP's first phase as part of the European Union (EU)-subsidized project, HyFleet:CUTE. The project, “Sustainable Bus System of the Future” (NaBuZ) by partners EvoBus, Daimler, and Hamburger Hochbahn, is at the demonstration preparation stage. The partners’ aim is to use a small, initial series of 10 fuel cell hybrid buses in Hamburg as part of Hochbahn’s scheduled services. NaBuZ will become part of CEP as soon as this small series is operating as a demonstration project.
Hydrogen Refueling Stations
Shell Deutschland Oil GmbH is planning an innovative hydrogen refueling station. Compact, scalable pump technology for hydrogen refueling is to be used on a large scale in Berlin and developed further in everyday operation. In this way, Shell aims to prove greater energy efficiency, longer service life, and fewer needs for repairs.
Linde is closely involved in this project. The company plans to develop an innovative refueling method to support large-scale public refueling on the basis of a new concept that includes such core components as a 900-bar pump and a thermal block for the thermal treatment of the hydrogen. The aim of the new system is to save space and energy and ensure reliable series refueling.
Linde is also continuing the operation of mobile 350- or 700-bar refueling points in order to meet increasing demand from the expanding hydrogen fleet. Established in the first CEP phase, the refueling system is located close to Berlin’s city centre.
TOTAL Deutschland is creating a mobile 700-bar refueling system for temporary use. In addition to supplying Berlin’s fleet of hydrogen-powered vehicles, the company’s aim is to thoroughly test mobile refueling systems as a supply option for early markets.
TOTAL’s service station in Heerstrasse, Berlin, continues to serve the CEP fleet in the second phase of the project. The refueling station is designed for hydrogen vehicles with 350- and 700-bar storage systems. It also has the technical equipment needed to refuel with liquid hydrogen.
In the longer term, renewable energy sources, in particular, are to be used for hydrogen production. Vattenfall is an important member of CEP in terms of establishing a hydrogen infrastructure of this kind in Germany.
In the field of domestic energy, the Callux lighthouse project is an NIP mainstay. (The name Callux is made up of the Latin words calor [heat] and lux [light].) Over the entire period of the project (2008 to 2015), a total of up to 800 fuel cell heating devices will be used in Callux for the supply of domestic heat and power.
Systems with polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology will both be tested. Phase 1 of the project has been running since September 2008. A total of 48% of the cost of Callux is covered by funds from NIP; which makes NOW a powerful and committed partner to the project. The aim of Callux is to further develop existing technology into reliable systems that are suitable for everyday use through the participating energy providers’ purchase, installation, and operation of large numbers of fuel cell heating devices. This effort will help prepare the market for the launch of fuel cell heaters powered by natural gas.
The core elements of the project are the field test modules of energy providers EnBW, E.ON, Ruhrgas, and MVV Energy. These companies purchase state-of-the-art fuel cell heating devices, make them available to interested private customers, and test the use of the technology in everyday practice. The energy providers purchase the heating devices on the basis of long-term contracts with device manufacturers Baxi Innotech, Hexis, and Vaillant. Thus, small initial production runs with the appropriate supplier chains are established.
The NEEDS lighthouse project was initiated in 2008 in the industrial fuel cell systems area within the energy supply sector. Its aim is to develop standardized fuel cell systems in combination with biomass utilization plants (biogas, sewer gas, pyrolysis, synthesis).
Dalkia Deutschland is working on an initial system, made up of a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) and a gas motor block-type thermal power station with a specially developed management and control system. The new system is designed for use in biogas plants. The MCFC is particularly well suited to permanent operation at the rated load point, while the gas motor block-type thermal power station converts the peak generation of biogas into heat and power, thus avoiding biogas burn-off. In addition, the plant’s waste heat is fed into a local heating system as useful heat. The installation of around 60 systems is planned by 2014 as part of the NEEDS lighthouse project.
Another lighthouse project is underway in Potsdam’s “Speicherstadt” warehouse area. The historic warehouse area is the main development site in the Potsdam inner city. Its energy supply is to be highly efficient and completely carbon dioxide (CO2) neutral. The project will combine innovative construction methods to minimize consumption with a high-performance MCFC fuel cell block-type thermal power station and biogas generation from organic waste.
MTU has initiated an individual project in the field of high-temperature fuel cells. The company is adapting and optimizing production processes in the course of development of an automated production line; to date, modules have been produced manually. The cell stacks produced in this way are being tested in the laboratory and in practice. The project combines research with development and trials and is being financed jointly by BMWi and BMVBS. The total contribution from the latter ministry for the period of 2008 to 2011 is €5.6 million (US$8.20 million).
SPECIAL MARKETS & PRODUCTS
Some fuel cell systems are already on the brink of market entry. These products are usually used in niche markets, which are referred to as special or early markets.
Uses for fuel cells range here from network-independent or critical power supplies in the information technology and telecommunications sectors (computer centers, mobile/fixed-line radio base stations) and logistics (fork-lift trucks) or portable applications (cell phones, cameras) to applications in the leisure and tourism market.
The leisure and tourism market holds many possibilities for fuel cell applications, and NOW is funding appropriate projects in this field. Initial individual projects in South Germany have been combined into the BODENSEE lighthouse project, which enables cross-sectional topics to be processed efficiently and for synergies to be created.
The BODENSEE project is testing the use of fuel cells for onboard power supplies for camping vehicles (e.g., camper vans, caravans) and drives for leisure vehicles (e.g., boots, light vehicles). In line with proven lighthouse project principles, these tests take place under everyday conditions. A further aim is to attract the high level of public attention that is possible for fuel cell applications in this sector. The BODENSEE lighthouse project has the support of the federal state of Baden-Württemberg as main partner for a period of one year.
The only commercial products are from SFC Smart Fuel Cell. The company specializes in mobile energy for leisure, industrial, and military applications. SFC Smart Fuel Cell has been selling its fuel cells to industrial and retail customers for more than four years already. The company has also established a commercial infrastructure to distribute its fuel cartridges.
Demonstration & Deployment (Read more) - Last updated November 2009
HYDROGEN DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM OVERVIEW
Clean Energy Partnership – Driving the Future with Hydrogen
The Clean Energy Partnership (CEP) is an international alliance established in 2002 that comprises the following companies: BMW Group, Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe BVG, Daimler, Ford, GM/Opel, Hamburger Hochbahn, Linde, Shell, StatoilHydro, TOTAL, Vattenfall Europe and Volkswagen. CEP currently operates one of the world’s largest demonstration projects for hydrogen technology in Berlin. It is the aim of CEP to prove that hydrogen is a viable fuel for everyday use, and to test fuelling infrastructure to prepare for commercialisation. CEP has already proved that hydrogen can be used safely in everyday road transportation. Hydrogen is the fuel of the future - produced from renewable energy sources and without any harmful emissions: A challenge and a complex task, demanding know-how in hydrogen technology combined with automotive expertise and competence in energy.
The Clean Energy Partnership
A lighthouse project supported by the National Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Innovation Programme (NIP) The oil, gas, energy and technology companies involved ensure hydrogen production, fuelling technology and infrastructure. During phase I, from 2002 to 2008, this included driving 400,000 kilometres using hydrogen as fuel, over 3,000 refuellings, the launch of a fully automatic LH2 automotive fuelling system and setting up the first 700-bar filling station in Berlin. There are plans to increase the two current filling stations operated by TOTAL to five, with different operators, in order to make Berlin-Hamburg the leading hydrogen region in Europe.
The Fuel of Tomorrow
Linde is a key technology partner, with over 100 years of experience in the production, liquefaction, distribution and storage of hydrogen. TOTAL, Linde and StatoilHydro are planning another hydrogen filling station in Berlin that will be supplied with liquid hydrogen by LH2-trailer and also on-site production of gaseous hydrogen by electrolysis. An underground storage solution and 350 and 700-bar dispensers complete the project. Shell Hydrogen and Vattenfall Europe intend to install new hydrogen filling stations in Berlin and Hamburg respectively. Vattenfall also supplies the project with green-certified electricity from renewable energy sources. The hydrogen filling station in Berlin-Spandau is operated by TOTAL and provides cars and buses with 350 and 700-bar hydrogen produced on-site, as well as liquid hydrogen delivered by LH2-trailer. CEP – a cross industry alliance working for an emissionfree future for cars and buses
Expertise in Hydrogen Technology
Most German automotive manufacturers are currently involved in this trailblazing project. The BMW Group, Daimler, Ford, GM/Opel and VW are contributing some 40 vehicles equipped with state-of-the-art technology to demonstrate, that hydrogen fuel is suitable for tough day-to-day operations. The hydrogen vehicles running on either liquid or gaseous hydrogen are being deployed by major fleet operators in Berlin. This reflects the crucial need to change energy use and familiarize ordinary customers with the technology in order to overcome scepticism regarding new fuels. The BMW Group currently operates 13 vehicles from its 7 Series in Berlin. These have combustion engines that run on liquid hydrogen. Daimler has ten A-Class fuel cell vehicles running on gaseous hydrogen in the project. Ford is represented by three Ford Focus Fuel Cell vehicles, while GM/Opel has ten brand new HydroGen4 vehicles featuring a 700-bar tank system. Volkswagen is contributing with a Touran HyMotion with fuel cell technology and gaseous hydrogen. As part of the European HyFLEET:CUTE project, the CEP partners Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe (BVG) and Hamburger Hochbahn (HVV) are currently operating 23 buses with hydrogen combustion engines and/or fuel cell technology on regular routes in Hamburg and Berlin. There are plans for further expansion of the bus fleets. The Clean Energy Partnership is supported by the Federal Government within the National Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Innovation Programme through NOW, the National Organization for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology.
Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia
The current project funding in North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) is implemented within the NRW Hydrogen Hyway program. The NRW Hydrogen HyWay – as part of the NRW Energy and Climate Protection Strategy – comprises about 40 sub-projects at about 10 locations which are predominantly connected by hydrogen pipeline and by main traffic routes (“Autobahnen”) as well. The planned activities encompass the whole range of utilization, including transport, stationary, and special market applications. Examples are buses used in fleets of transportation companies, cars used in pools of public entities (e.g., ministries, local authorities), or utility vehicles used by logistic companies. Stationary applications will be used for the energy supply of homes linked together to a “virtual power plant.” Early market applications comprise light utility vehicles, material handling vehicles, uninterruptible power supplies, etc. The locations of the NRW Hydrogen HyWay are Aachen (Euregio: Netherlands, Belgium), Cologne, Düsseldorf, Essen, and the Northern Ruhr Area.
The overall budget of the 40 projects amounts to about 200 million euros until 2011. The Government of NRW is committed to provide a funding of approximately 70 million euros. The contents of the program are strongly in line with the activities of the Federal Government and the other Federal States of Germany as well as the European Joint Technology Initiative. The main objectives of the NRW Hydrogen Hyway concept are to contribute to the International Highway Project of the IPHE and to the World Hydrogen Energy Conference 2010 that will take place in May 2010 in Essen/NRW.
HYDROGEN FILLING STATIONS (CEP ONLY)
|Station||Capacity||Dispensing Pressure||Production Method|
|Berlin Holzmarktstrasse (Total)||
35 MPa and liquid 70 Mpa
|Delivered (liquid) and on-site electrolysis|
35 MPa and liquid 70 MPa
|Delivered (liquid) and on-site LPG reforming (gas)|
Note: Seven additional stations are located in North Rhine-Westphalia (1 mobile, Aachen, Bottrop, Duesseldorf, Gladbeck, Herten, Muenster).
STATIONARY FUEL CELLS
- Two 5-kW stationary fuel cells for boil-off consumption at fuel station at Berlin Heerstrasse (CEP)
- Four NRW residential energy stationary systems
- Five NRW industrial stationary systems
- Five NRW special stationary systems (uninterruptible power supplies)
DEMONSTRATIONS INVOLVING OTHER TYPES OF FUEL CELL APPLICATIONS
Special vehicles in NRW: 3 forklifts and 20 bikes