China China

IPHE Country Update: March 2017

Name: Pan Xiangmin
Contact Information:
Covered Period: October 2016 - March 2017

New Policy Initiatives on Hydrogen and Fuel Cell (Read more)

The Chinese Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE China) released a "Technology Roadmap for Energy-Saving and New Energy Vehicles" for China in October 2016, including the Fuel Cell Vehicle Technology Roadmap. This technology roadmap is the newest comprehensive guideline for energy-saving vehicles and NEVs and takes into account China’s "Made in China 2025" initiative.

On Oct 28, 2016, the 2016 China Bluebook on Hydrogen Energy Industrial Infrastructure was officially released by China National Institute for Standardization (CNIS) and National Standardization Technical Committee on Hydrogen Energy (SAC/TC 309).

On Dec 29, 2016, the central authorities renewed the standards of new energy vehicle subsidies for 2017. Except fuel cell vehicle, central and local subsidy standards and limits for various models in 2017 and 2018 fall 20% on the basis of existing standards. The revision also raises technological standards, including battery capacity and pure electric drive range.

Hydrogen and Fuel Cell R&D Update (Read more)   

Peking University and Chinese Academy of Sciences cooperated on research on low - temperature hydrogen production from water and methanol, developed a new platinum - molybdenum carbide bifunctional catalyst, and on the high production efficiency of hydrogen at low temperature (150-190 ℃). The results of the study "Low - temperature hydrogen production from water and methanol using Pt/alpha MoC catalysts" is published in Nature on March 23, 2017.

Demonstration and Deployments Update (Read more)


January 2017, a 35MPa hydrogen refuelling station opened in Yunfu City in South China's Guangdong Province. This is the first hydrogen refuelling station in Guangdong Province, one of the most promising area for fuel cell vehicles in China. More than 10 HRSs are in planning or under construction in Guangdong Province.

More and more automobile manufactures began to pay attention on fuel cell vehicles, some of which had developed fuel cell vehicles, such as SAIC, Yutong, Foton, DFM, and so on. A few new fuel cell bus models were included in the national recommended directory of 2017. It was reported that Foton would deploy 60 fuel cell buses in Beijing in May 2017, and 500 Foton fuel cell buses would be deployed around the country in 2017.

CRRC Qingdao Sifang announced on March 9,2017 that it has signed a contract to produce eight hydrogen-powered trams. The trams are expected to run on a 17.4 km track with 20 stations in Foshan city, Guangdong province. The first phase of the project officially started construction on February 27th, and is expected to be completed by the end of 2018.

Other Application:

On October 14th, 2016, the world’s first 2MW PEM fuel cell power plant was installed on site at Ynnovate Sanzheng (Yingkou) Fine Chemicals Co. Ltd in Yingkou, Liaoning province, China. This fuel cell power plant was delivered by AkzoNobel, MTSA, and Nedstack with support from the European Union’s Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking (FCH JU).

Chinese drone manufacturer MMC introduces the next generation of its hydrogen drone at the International Defense Exhibition and Conference (IDEX 2017). HyDrone 1800's hydrogen fuel cell technology provides a flight endurance of 4 hours.

Events and Solicitations (Read more)

The "2017 China International Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Conference and Exhibition" will be held in the China International Exhibition Center on October 17-19, 2017. Further information will be provided later.

Investments: Government and Collaborative Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Funding (Read more)  


Regulations, Codes & Standards Update (


Data Table (





Ministry of Science and Technology
China Association for Hydrogen

Reports & Publications

Policy, Programme, and Activities in H2/FC Sector in China (PDF 352MB); 22 April 2008
Progress of the GEF-UNDP-CHINA Cooperation Project: Demonstration for Fuel Cell Bus Commercialization in China (PDF 1.48MB); 20 April 2008

Member Statements

Member Statements (Read more) - Last updated October 2016

  • China Statement (PDF); 26th Steering Committee Meeting;Gwangju, Republic of Korea; November 1-4, 2016
  • China Statement (PDF 283KB); 25th Steering Committee Meeting;Berkeley, CA, USA; May 17-20, 2016
  • Chinese Statement (PDF); 24th Steering Committee Meeting; Grenoble, France; 1-3 December, 2015
  • Chinese Statement (PDF); 23rd Steering Committee Meeting; Wuhan, China; 27-28 May 2015
  • Chinese Statement (PDF 511KB); 22nd Steering Committee Meeting; Rome, Italy; 2-3 December 2014
  • Chinese Statement (PDF 1.16MB); 20th Steering Committee Meeting; City of Fukuoka, Japan; 20-21 November 2013
  • Chinese Statement (PDF 732KB); 18th Steering Committee Meeting; Seville, Spain; 14 November 2012
  • Chinese Statement (PDF 687KB); 17th Steering Committee Meeting; Cape Town, South Africa; 3-4 May 2012
  • Chinese Statement (PDF 1.78MB); 15th Steering Committee Meeting; Vancouver, Canada; May 2011
  • Chinese Statement (PDF 2MB); 13th Joint Meeting of the ILC & SC; Essen, Germany; May 2010
  • Chinese Statement (PDF 1.97MB); ILC/SC Joint Meeting; Washington, DC; 1-3 December 2009
  • Chinese Statement (PDF 685KB); Steering Committee Meeting; Reykjavik, Iceland; 26-27 September 2006
  • Chinese Statement (PDF 989KB); Steering Committee; Kyoto, Japan; 14-15 September 2005
  • Chinese Statement (PDF 1MB); Steering Committee Meeting; Paris, France; 26-28 January 2005
  • Chinese Statement (PDF 453KB); Steering Committee Meeting; Beijing, China; 26-28 May 2004
  • Chinese Statement (PDF 31KB); ILC Committee Meeting; Reisensburg, Germany; 26 February 2004
  • Ministerial Statement; IPHE Ministerial Meeting; Washington, D.C.; 20 Nov 2003


Involvement & Participants (Read more) - Last updated January 2009


China is the second largest consumer of energy in the world, behind the United States (22.8%). Total primary energy consumption in China in 2004 reached 1,386.2 million tons of oil equivalent, accounting for 13.6% of global consumption.

In 2004, oil consumption in China was 292 million tons, accounting for 8.2% of total oil consumption in the world. Also that year, China produced 175 million tons of oil and imported 117 million tons of oil, accounting for 40% of total oil consumption.  On the basis of these percentages, oil import dependence will be 50% by 2010 and over 60% by 2020. Other key points:

  • In 2004, total non-exploited proven oil reserves in the world were 161.9 billion tons. In China, the rate of reserves/production in China was 40.5, given that China produced 3.87 billion tons of oil.
  • China is the second largest emitter of CO2 in the world, making up roughly 13% of global emission.

China's automobile industry has enjoyed a booming market since 2001, when cars entered Chinese households at a large scale. To ensure energy security, protect the environment, and stimulate innovation in the auto industry, the Ministry of Science and Technology of China launched a special project on the R&D of electric vehicles (EVs). The project focuses on three types of new vehicles: hybrid, pure electric, and fuel cell. It plans to develop key technologies of battery, motor, and electronic control systems. In 2004, new-energy vehicles started their commercial demonstration in eight Chinese cities. In the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, 600 EVs of different types realized the goal of zero-emission transportation in Olympic venues and low emissions in surrounding areas. Zero-emission vehicles driven by electricity and fuel cells will be further promoted through demonstration at the 2010 Shanghai World Expo.


Beijing Fuyuan Fuel Cell Group

The Beijing Fuyuan Fuel Cell Group consists of two companies: Beijing Fuyuan Century Fuel Cell Power Ltd. Corp. and Beijing Fuyuan Pioneer New Energy Material Ltd. Corp.:

  • Beijing Fuyuan Century Fuel Cell Power is developing PEM fuel-cell technology. It has developed stacks ranging in size from 3 W to 30 kW. Prototypes include a 3-W system for mobile phones, a 30-W system for laptops, and a 300-W system for scooters or electric bicycles. In 1998, the company developed the first fuel-cell-powered vehicle in China in conjunction with the Automotive Engineering Department of Tsinghua University, installing a 5-kW stack into a prototype golf cart. One year later, a sedan car was developed with Tsinghua University. More recently, Beijing Fuyuan has built and tested 40-kW PEM fuel cells for cars and 150-kW units for buses. Furthermore, the company has developed a 200-W PEM system, which it has shipped to the Japanese company QM Soft, which plans to sell 50 of the portable units per month (price about US$ 3,500).
  • Sister company Beijing Fuyuan Pioneer New Energy Material specializes in the R&D and production of PEM fuel-cell components, including carbon, platinum catalysts, composite, metal bi-polar plates, and PEMs.

Beijing Jinfeng Aerospace S&T Developments Company

Beijing Jinfeng Aerospace S&T Developments Company is the country’s largest producer of hydrogen-storing metals and one of 13 manufacturers that have a combined production capacity of 7,000 tons/year. The company is working on possible uses of hydrogen for transport applications.

Beijing LN Green Power Company

The Beijing LN Green Power Company (Beijing LN Power Sources), established as the LN Research Institute in 1998, is attempting to transfer its experience in electric vehicles to fuel cells. In 2001, together with the Electric Vehicle R&D Centre of the Beijing Institute of Technology (part of the Chinese Academy of Science), LN Green Power developed a PEM fuel-cell-powered taxi with a range of 150 km and a top speed of around 75 km/h. In the same year, a PEM fuel-cell car (range of 50 km; top speed of 24 km/h) was showcased, which was developed with the Tsinghua University and the Beijing Institute of Technology. Furthermore, a small 12-seat fuel cell bus was unveiled at the same time.

BYD Battery Company

BYD Battery Company, a manufacturer of rechargeable batteries, has reported that a group of its 200-strong R&D team is working on fuel cells, but no details are forthcoming at present. The company is based in southern China, near Shenzhen.

Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry

The Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry (part of CAS) is working on nickel-based alloys for storing hydrogen and on molten carbonate salts for fuel cells. Furthermore, this institute has also been working on direct methanol fuel cells (1–100 W) for portable applications.

China Association for Hydrogen Energy

The China Association for Hydrogen Energy aims to promote hydrogen as a clean fuel for fuel cells and various other applications. The association is organizing the HYFORUM event, one of the largest hydrogen- and fuel-cell-related conferences in China.

Clean Energy Automotive Engineering Center of Tongji University

The Clean Energy Automotive Engineering Center of Tongji University (CEAEC) was founded in 2002. During the “Tenth Five Years Plan,” it mainly undertakes a host of important science and technology-tackling projects of the state and Shanghai in “Electric Vehicles,” “Fuel Cell Vehicles (FCV),” “multi-energy power control systems of fuel cell vehicles,” and “key technology of hybrid-power vehicles” in the China 863 Program (National High-Tech Research and Development Program of China). At present, CEAEC has achieved great success in some fields, such as clean energy automotive design and testing, power system integration, research and development on automotive electric controlling, and hydrogen facilities technology, among others. It was ratified to be the Clean Energy Automotive Engineering Center of Education Ministry and the Shanghai Technology and Research Center of Electric Vehicles Engineering in 2006.

Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics

Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics (DICP) has been carrying out fuel cell R&D for more than 50 years:

  • From the 1960s to the 1970s, alkaline fuel cells (500–600 W) were successfully developed. In the 1980s, DICP developed an alkaline-free-electrolyte flow H2-O2 fuel cell and a large-capacity energy storage fuel cell. Other research areas have included the development of thin metal bipolar plates that are easy to manufacture and manufacturing processes for membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs).
  • There has also been some work by DICP on direct methanol fuel cells and catalysts. In the last decade, DICP has been developing PEM fuel cells, molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs), and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The institute employs more than 70 researchers and engineers in three R&D groups working on stacks with a power range between 1 and 75 kW for small and large stationary, transport, and portable applications. DICP demonstrated various cars and small and large fuel-cell buses in 2001–03, most of which had a 30-kW PEM stack. In spring 2003, the institute supplied its new 75-kW PEM stack to Tsinghua University, which integrated the unit into a bus. Furthermore, DICP, in cooperation with Samsung Electronics, has set up a joint research laboratory for the work on direct methanol fuel cells.
  • In August 2003, DICP signed a contract with Toyota to jointly develop clean energy vehicles, including the use of fuel cells. In 2001, DICP established Dalian Sunrise Power Co. Ltd. with a number of other Chinese organizations to commercialize its fuel cell technology. In conjunction with DICP and Shanghai Qianhe Bicycle Plant, work carried out by this company includes the development of a fuel cell bicycle powered by a 200-W PEM fuel cell. This technology was exhibited at the 2001 Shanghai Industry Exposition.

Fujian Nanping Nanfu Battery Company

The Fujian Nanping Nanfu Battery Company (Nanfu Battery) is the leading battery manufacturer in China. In 2002, the company signed an agreement with DICP to develop portable direct methanol fuel cells. Nanfu Battery will support this effort with US$ 1.2 million over 4 years.

General Research Institute for Non-ferrous Metals

The General Research Institute for Non-ferrous Metals (GRINM) is doing research related to hydrogen storage, including high-pressure storage and sensors. GRINM is developing hydrogen storage materials by using rare earths, titanium, and magnesium, as well as nano hydrogen storage materials. GRINM also produces and sells metal hydrides and hydrogen storage containers for fuel cells for mobile phones, bicycles, and motor scooters.

Centre for Hydrate & Natural Gas Research at the Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion

The Centre for Hydrate & Natural Gas Research at the Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion (GIEC) is conducting research on renewable energy technologies. GIEC has received funding from the government’s 973 Program in order to develop energy and gas storage systems and a small stationary methane fuel cell.

Inner Mongolian HEFA Rare Earth Science & Technology Development Compan | Nankai University

Inner Mongolian HEFA Rare Earth Science & Technology Development Company is a Chinese-Canadian manufacturer and distributor of rare earth oxide, hydrogen storage powder, and nickel-hydrogen materials. The company works closely with Nankai University on hydrogen storage technology. Early developments have resulted in a new magnesium-based hydrogen storage alloy that has higher hydrogen storage capabilities than alloys prepared by using metal-melting methods.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering at the Huazhong University

The Department of Materials Science and Engineering at the Huazhong University is working on hydrogen storage alloys and new PEMs. 

Nanjing BINKI Industry Company

Nanjing BINKI Industry Company manufactures and supplies perfluorinated ionomer membranes and perfluorinated powder/resin for PEM and direct methanol fuel cells. The company claims that its material has some advantages over Nafion, including isotropy, high crystallinity, and resistance to oxygenation.

NewEco Developing Center

The NewEco Developing Center is a renewable business and ecological economy organization based in Beijing, China. NewEco provides research and development, system design, and consulting services in the field of renewable energy, including solar, wind, fuel cell, and biomass.

Palcan Fuel Cells | Shanghai Giant & Phoenix Bicycle | Shanghai Wheelchair Factory | China Shipbuilding Industry Corp.

The Canadian fuel cell manufacturer Palcan Fuel Cells has signed strategic fuel cell and hydrogen research agreements with various Chinese organizations. In 2009, Palcan supplied a 300-W PEM stack to bike manufacturer Shanghai Giant & Phoenix Bicycle to power a fuel cell scooter and a 1.5-kW stack to the Shanghai Wheelchair Factory to power a wheelchair. Furthermore, a 5-kW stack will be supplied to the steel, ship, and power generator manufacturer China Shipbuilding Industry Corp., which will integrate the unit into a boat.

Pan Asia Technical Automotive Center | General Motors China | SAIC

The Pan Asia Technical Automotive Center (PATAC) is a US$ 50 million, 50-50 joint venture between General Motors China and SAIC. It provides automotive engineering services, including design, development, testing, and validation of components and vehicles for automotive companies in China and the Asia Pacific region. In 2000, PATAC presented the fuel cell vehicle, Phoenix, a 1.5-ton General Motors Buick minivan, powered by a 35-kW PEM fuel cell with a top speed of around 110 km/h.

Shandong Blue-Sky New Energy Company

The Shandong Blue-Sky New Energy Company is developing zinc-air fuel cells, mainly to power small electric vehicles, such as bicycles and scooters.

Shandong University

Shandong University is working on storing liquid hydrogen and bio-hydrogen. Furthermore, the university is researching ways of reforming and producing hydrogen from ethanol, organic solvents, fodder, and methane or from photosynthetic bacteria.


SAIC is China’s largest car manufacturer, producing almost half of the vehicles sold in the country. Apart from its joint fuel cell activities in PATAC, SAIC is working on its own developments. In 2003, the company presented its first fuel cell car prototype, the Chao Yue 1. The car is based on Volkswagen’s old Santana sedan and can reach a top speed of 110 km/h. SAIC has invested US$ 4.6 million in its fuel cell research campaign and has received another US$ 10 million from the Chinese government to continue its efforts throughout 2004. The company introduced a small demonstration fleet in 2005.

Shanghai Forever Company

In 2001, moped and bicycle manufacturer Shanghai Forever Company (Shanghai Forever Bicycle) signed an agreement with Palcan Fuel Cells for the manufacture and integration of a portable fuel cell system into Shanghai Forever’s popular electric bicycle and low-speed electric motor scooters. Furthermore, the two companies have agreed to jointly develop and demonstrate further generations of fuel-cell-powered vehicles.

Shanghai Fuel Cell Vehicle Powertrain Co., Ltd

Shanghai Fuel Cell Vehicle Powertrain Co., Ltd. (SFCV), was established in 2001. SFCV is a high-tech enterprise that focus on the development, manufacture, marketing and technical service of electric vehicles. Now, SFCV is taking on the National 863 Key EV Program Fuel Cell Car in cooperation with other domestic enterprises and developing EV powertrain platforms.

Shanghai Institute of Ceramics

The Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, part of CAS, is researching and developing materials for planar SOFC stacks. The Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry (SIOC), also part of CAS, is a leading research institution in organic chemistry in China and has made significant contributions to the development of national science, the economy, and defense. As a leader in PEM research, SIOC has made significant advances in partial fluorine PEMs. SIOC is the primary shareholder of Shanghai TL Chemical Company, which was established in 2002 to develop and commercialize PEM and MEA technologies.

Institute of Fuel Cells at the Shanghai Jiao Tong University

The Institute of Fuel Cells at the Shanghai Jiao Tong University is working on small stationary (<10 kW) PEM and MCFC and electrolyzers. The university has received a US$ 1.8 million grant from the Chinese government to support these efforts. Future work will include the development of 3–5-kW residential PEM units, 1-kW SOFC units, and 10–50-kW MCFCs.

Shanghai Shen-Li High Tech Company Ltd.

Founded in 1998, Shanghai Shen-Li High Tech Company Ltd. is developing PEM fuel cells for a whole array of applications, from portable power to mini-buses. Currently employing around fifty people, it has developed a series of prototypes, ranging in output from 10 W to 50 kW. Future projects include the development of fuel cells in the 1–10-W range to power mobile phones and other devices. Shen-Li High Tech has successfully demonstrated a 2.5-kW PEM scooter, a 40-kW car, a 500-W bicycle (jointly developed with Su-Zhou Machinery), and a 4.8-kW small sightseeing vehicle and has plans for a 30–80-kW PEM minibus. The company has been supported by the Chinese Government’s 863 Program to develop PEM membranes and a 30-kW stationary power unit and has received funding from the local government in Shanghai to develop a 5‑kW small stationary unit. Shen-Li High Tech has a close working relationship with the Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry.

Shanghai Sunwise Energy System Co., Ltd.

Shanghai Sunwise Energy System Co., Ltd., was jointly invested by Shanghai Fuel Cell Powertrain System Co., Ltd., and Shanghai Aerospace Energy Co., Ltd., as the major shareholders and has been engaged in R&D and the promotion of new energy technologies. Sunwise’s main activities include hydrogen technical advisory, hydrogen refueling station design and engineering services, hydrogen sales, energy-saving emission reduction technology and related equipment, R&D, and system integration. The company has two separate workshops: the Hydrogen System Manufacture & Test Workshop and High-Pressure Valve Assembly & Testing Clean Workshop. Sunwise is also responsible for operating the Anting Hydrogen Refueling Station, which is the first one in Shanghai.

Shanghai Yung-Qiang Technology | Shanghai Marine Diesel Engine Research Institute

Shanghai Yung-Qiang Technology, a subsidiary owned by Shanghai Marine Diesel Engine Research Institute, is working with Palcan Fuel Cells on manufacturing and developing various hydrogen and air fuel subsystem components for Palcan fuel cells. Yung-Qiang Technology will invest around 800,000 yuan (US$ 98,000) on the development of a new lightweight container for Palcan’s proprietary low-pressure metal hydride storage material.

South-North Institute for Sustainable Development

The South-North Institute for Sustainable Development is a Chinese non-profit non-governmental organization based in Beijing. It works on legislation, regulations, and policy of environmental protection and sustainable development and promotes the use of renewable energy, especially in the Asia-Pacific region. Its fuel-cell-related work includes an ongoing project that aims to develop a 10-year strategy for the development and commercialization of fuel cell vehicles in Shanghai.

Suzhou Small Antelope Electric Bicycle Company | Suzhou Chuangyuan Group

Electric bike producer Suzhou Small Antelope Electric Bicycle Company, part of the Suzhou Chuangyuan Group, signed an agreement in 2002 with Palcan Fuel Cells for the development of a fuel-cell-powered bicycle based on the Small Antelope electric bike and incorporating Palcan’s PalPac portable fuel cell. Another joint venture with Beijing Fuyuan Century Fuel Cell Power aims to develop 100–5,000-W fuel cells for scooters and motorbikes.

Tsinghua University

Tsinghua University is in charge of the project known as “National Key Fundamental Projects: Fundamental Research for Hydrogen Production, Storage and Transportation in Large Scale and Relative Fuel Cells, and Fuel Cell Engines Used for Buses.” The university is working on developing PEM fuel cells and fuel cell engines and making hydrogen from ethanol. In 1999, Tsinghua demonstrated a 5-kW PEM fuel-cell-powered golf car, the stack being developed by Beijing Fuyuan Century Fuel Cell Power. Together with Beijing LN Power Sources, Tsinghua University introduced various vehicles in 2001, one of which was a small 12-seat bus (top speed of 90 km/h, range of 160 km). As part of the government’s 863 Program, Tsinghua University is expected to use an 80-kW engine to develop another prototype bus.

Zhejiang University Science Park Development Company | Zhejiang University

Zhejiang University Science Park Development Company, a spin-off of Zhejiang University, is also working with Canadian fuel cell manufacturer Palcan. The company is developing a metal hydride storage canister exchange concept that will be suitable for applications under two kilowatts. The advanced energy materials research laboratory at Zhongshan University (Sun Yat-Sen University) is conducting basic research on advanced energy materials and technologies, such as nano-materials, fuel cells, catalysts, electrochemical sensors, nano-composite materials, and high-performance polymer materials.

Policy & Legislation (Read more) - Last updated January 2009

The Chinese government has adopted the strategy of “sustainable development” and the policy of “energy saving production, environmental friendly, and resource cyclic economy manner.”  A renewable energy law came into effect in January 2006. On May 30, 1998, China signed the Tokyo Commitment, which was put into effect in February 2005.

China’s government places great importance on hydrogen and fuel cell research, development, and commercialization.

The 863 Program (named after the start date in March 1986) aims to promote the development of biological, agricultural, material, environmental, and energy technologies. During the 10th Five-year (2001–2005) Economic Development Plan, China’s Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) approved an 880 million yuan (US$ 106 million) R&D program to develop advanced hybrid-electric drive and fuel cell vehicles.  In 2006, MOST issued the 11th Five-Year Plan for the high-technology industry, which stresses the development of hydrogen and fuel cells and is aimed at developing a large-scale hydrogen production and storage infrastructure.

The 973 Program (named after the start date in March 1997) is another MOST program, focusing on more basic research. The government is spending around 30 million yuan (US$ 3.75 million) on research into hydrogen storage materials, fuel cell membranes, and catalysts.

In 2006, the State Council issued the “outline of medium-term and long-term national science and technology development planning (2006–2020).” Hydrogen and fuel cell technology was included in the priority themes and considered cutting-edge technology.

In 2007, the Ministry of Science and Technology joined 14 other ministries and issued a “China’s National Climate Change Program” that hoped to strengthen the clean vehicle, hybrid electric vehicle, and fuel cell and hydrogen energy technologies to slow down the emissions of greenhouse gases.

In 2009, pilot programs for the demonstration of energy conservation and new energy vehicles were launched in 13 cities, including Beijing and Shanghai. The government will provide a one-off subsidy for the purchase of hybrid, electric, and fuel cell vehicles in these cities.

Research & Development (Read more) - Last updated January 2009

Various foundations and other organizations are involved in funding R&D on environmentally friendly ways of producing energy in China:

  • The Chinese Academy of Science (CAS) announced in January 2002 that it intends to make China globally competitive in the field of hydrogen technology. It plans to invest up to 100 million yuan (US$ 12 million) in (polymer electrolyte membrane) PEM fuel-cell technology over a three-year period. Most of the money will go to the Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics.
  • In 1999, the U.S.-based David and Lucile Packard Foundation and the Energy Foundation launched the China Sustainable Energy Program, which funds Chinese non-government organizations and research institutes working on energy efficiency and renewable energy policies with US$ 5 million per year. The program is also supported by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

The National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) is an organization directly affiliated with the State Council for the management of the National Natural Science Fund. The NSFC supports basic research and has sponsored hydrogen storage projects at the University of Science and Technology of China and various institutes at CAS.

The U.S. Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC), with the support of the W. Alton Jones Foundation, has worked over the last three years with the Shanghai Economic Commission, Tongji University, the Energy Research Institute, and the South-North Institute to raise awareness in China regarding the commercialization of fuel cell vehicles. Furthermore, the NRDC has worked with the Taiwan Institute for Economic Research to facilitate collaboration between Canadian Palcan Fuel Cells of Vancouver and the cities of Shanghai and Taipei on the development of a fuel cell scooter.

The Department of Resources Conservation and Comprehensive Utilization, part of the State Economic and Trade Commission of the People’s Republic of China, is responsible for energy-savings efforts, energy efficiency, renewable energy, and the promotion of the development of fuel cell technology in China.

  • Promoted and funded by China MOST and Beijing Municipal Government, the construction of Beijing Hydrogen Park was initiated in 2004. The Beijing hydrogen refueling station for the demonstration of fuel cell bus commercialization in China was set up at Beijing Hydrogen Park in 2006. Beijing SinoHytec Ltd., BP, and Beijing Tongfang Co. Ltd. as the project stakeholders are cooperating to construct and operate the Beijing hydrogen refueling station.
  • Under the support of China MOST and the Shanghai Municipal Government, Tongji University and Shanghai Fuel Cell Vehicle Powertrain Co. (SFCV) have made significant progress in the development of fuel cell vehicles. By 2005, Tongji and SFCV had successfully developed three generations of fuel cell powertrain system platforms (“Start 1,” “Start 2,” and “Start 3”) and 13 prototype fuel cell passenger cars. “Start 2” and “Start 3” took part in the 2004 Shanghai Bibendum Challenge and the 2006 Paris Bibendum Challenge, respectively. The “Start 3” won the first prize in fuel efficiency and pass-by noise test and was in the top 10% among all of the fuel cell vehicle participants in 2006. Since 2006, Tongji and SFCV have developed a new generation of fuel cell powertrain system platforms and built 30 fuel cell vehicles based on Shanghai Auto Industry Corporation’s (SAIC’s) “Roewe” and SVW “Lingyu” vehicles.  Among those vehicles, 20 Lingyu fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) were successfully demonstrated in the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games.
  • Under the support of China MOST and the Shanghai Municipal Government, the first hydrogen refueling station, Anting Hydrogen Refueling Station, was built in 2007. Anting Hydrogen Refueling Station was co-built by Tongji University, Shanghai Aerospace Energy Co., and Shanghai Sunwise Energy System Co. Shell Hydrogen cooperated with Tongji University as technical consultant and funds part of the station demonstration. Linde provided engineering services for the construction of the station. The fuel cell vehicles refueled in this station were developed by Tongji University, and the station will be used as part of the Global Environment Facility/United Nations Development Programme/MOST (GEF/UNDP/MOST) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Program Phase II.


Demonstration & Deployment (Read more) - Last updated January 2009


Demonstration of Fuel Cell Vehicles at 2008 Beijing Olympics

A total of 20 fuel cell cars and three fuel cell buses were demonstrated during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. The vehicles were used to transport special guests, members of the press, and officials from the Olympics organizing committee. The cars were designed by Shanghai Volkswagen's Passat GP and co-manufactured by Shanghai Fuel Cell Vehicle Powertrain Co. Ltd., Tongji University, and Shanghai Automotive Industry Corp. The buses were developed by Tsinghua University and Beiqi Foton Motor Co.  The FCVs acted as an operating model among 600 other types of electric cars on roads and achieved zero pollution in the Olympic core area.

During the Olympic demonstration, these hydrogen vehicles were refueled at the Beijing Hydrogen refueling station, which went into operation on November 9, 2006. The refueling station, with external H2 sources and an on-site methane reforming facility, also provides service for the GEF/UNDP China Fuel Cell Buses (FCB) Demonstration Project in Beijing.

Demonstration Project for Fuel Cell Bus Commercialization in China

In March 2003, the GEF, UNDP, and Chinese government launched a pilot project aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution through the introduction of FCBs in urban areas of China. The objective of this project was to demonstrate the operational viability of FCBs in a developing country.

The project, structured in two different phases, catalyzed the cost-reduction of FCBs for public transit in Chinese cities. The project supported significant parallel demonstrations of FCBs and their fueling infrastructure in Beijing and Shanghai.

For Phase I of the GEF-UNDP-China FCB project, three FCBs purchased from Daimler-Chrysler started formal operation for the public in Beijing on June 20, 2006, and finished their demonstration in October 2007.

The Phase II of the GEF-UNDP-China FCB project was launched in Shanghai on November 15, 2007. At the same time, the Anting hydrogen refueling station was officially opened. In this phase, Shanghai bus lines is demonstrating the operation of six fuel-cell buses developed by a domestic company for two years.

“1,000+ Green Vehicles in Each City”

In 2009, demonstration projects for energy conservation and new-energy vehicles have been launched in 13 cities, including Beijing and Shanghai, called “1,000+ Green Vehicles in each City.” It promotes large-scale commercialization of new-energy vehicles in the public transport systems of 13 cities initially, making hybrid, electric, and fuel cell buses and taxis available to the people. The government will provide a one-off subsidy for the purchase of hybrid, electric, and fuel cell vehicles in these cities. By 2012, over 60,000 clean buses and taxis are expected to be running in China.

Demonstration of Fuel Cell Vehicles at 2010 Shanghai World EXPO

During the 2010 World Expo, over 1,000 environmentally friendly buses and cars will be used to transport visitors in and around the expo site. The vehicles will be used to help the expo site stay emission-free and keep the area around the zone a low-emission site. Among the vehicles will be 196 fuel cell vehicles, including six fuel cell buses, 90 fuel cell cars, and 100 fuel cell tourist cars. To support this demonstration, one stationary hydrogen refueling station and two mobile hydrogen stations will be constructed and opened in early 2010.


Station Capacity Dispensing Pressure Production Method
20 MPa and 35 MPa
Delivered (AirProducts, 180 kg/day), and on-site reforming from natural gas (4.5 kg/hour)
800 kg
Delivered (coke-oven plant by-product)
Beijing LN Power Sources station
35 MPa, also sold in steel bottles
On-site electrolysis (27 kg/hour)


  • 20 fuel cell vehicles

  • 6-9 fuel cell buses


None reported


None reported